Kiếp

Kappa

"kiếp" là phiên âm của từ "kappa" để chỉ 1 đời sống, quá trình tồn tại từ lúc sanh ra đến lúc chết đi của vạn vật, của vũ trụ, của thế giới.

Ví dụ: kiếp người, kiếp trái đất.

 

◎ Buddhist Dictionary:

kappa,(Sanskrit kalpa):'world-period',an inconceivably long space of time,an aeon.This again is subdivided into 4 sections:world-dissolution (saṃvaṭṭa-kappa) dissolving world),continuation of the chaos (saṃvaṭṭa-ṭṭhāyī),world-formation (vivaṭṭa -kappa),continuation of the formed world (vivaṭṭa-ṭṭhāyī).

"How long a world-dissolution will continue,how long the chaos,how long the formation,how long the continuation of the formed world,of these things; o monks,one hardly can say that it will be so many years,or so many centuries,or so many millennia,or so many hundred thousands of years" (A.IV,156)

A detailed deion of the 4 world-periods is given in that stirring discourse on the all-embracing impermanence in A.VII,62.

The beautiful simile in S.XV,5 may be mentioned here:Suppose,o monks,there was a huge rock of one solid mass,one mile long,one mile wide,one mile high,without split or flaw.And at the end of every hundred years a man should come and rub against it once with a silken cloth.Then that huge rock would wear off and disappear quicker than a world-period.But of such world-periods,o monks,many have passed away,many hundreds,many thousands,many hundred thousands.And how is this possible? Inconceivable,o monks,is this saṃsāra (q.v.),not to be discovered is any first beginning of beings,who obstructed by ignorance and ensnared by craving,are hurrying and hastening through this round of rebirths."

Compare here Grimm's German fairy-tale of the little shepherdboy:'In Farther Pommerania there is the diamond-mountain,one hour high,one hour wide,one hour deep.There every hundred years a little bird comes and whets its little beak on it.And when the whole mountain is ground off,then the first second of eternity has passed."

 

◎ Concise P-E Dictionary:

kappa:[m.] 1.a world cycle; an aeon; 2.thought.(adj.),suitable; proper; resembling.(in cpds.).

 

◎ PTS P-E Dictionary:

Kappa,(adj.n.) [Sk.kalpa,see kappeti for etym.& formation] anything made with a definite object in view,prepared,arranged; or that which is fit,suitable,proper.See also DA.I,103 & KhA 115 for var.meanings.--I Literal Meaning.-- 1.(adj.) fitting,suitable,proper (cp.°tā) (=kappiya) in kappâkappesu kusalo Th.1,251,°kovido Mhvs 15,16; Sn.911; as juice Miln.161.‹-› (-°) made as,like,resembling Vin.I,290 (ahata°); Sn.35 (khaggavisāṇa°); hetu° acting as cause to Sn.16; Miln.105; --a° incomparable Mhvs 14,65; -- 2.(nt.) a fitting,i.e.harness or trapping (cp.kappana) Vv 209 (VvA.104); -- a small black dot or smudge (kappabindu) imprinted on a new robe to make it lawful Vin.I,255; IV,227,286:also fig.a making-up (of a trick):lesa° DA.I,103; VvA.348.-- II.Applied Meaning.‹-› 1.(qualitative) ordinance,precept,rule; practice,manner Vin.II,294,301 (:kappati singiloṇa-kappo “fit is the rule concerning ...”); cp.Mhvs 4,9; one of the chalaṅga,the 6 disciplines of Vedic interpretation,VvA.265; -- 2.(temporal) a “fixed” time,time with ref.to individual and cosmic life.As āyu at DA.I,103 (cp.kappaṁ); as a cycle of time=saṁsāra at Sn.521,535,860 (na eti kappaṁ); as a measure of time:an age of the world Vin.III,109; Miln.108; Sdhp.256,257; PvA.21; It.17=Bdhd 87=S.II,185.There are 3 principal cycles or aeons:mahā°,asaṅkheyya°,antara°; each mahā° consists of 4 asaṅkheyya-kappas,viz.saṁvaṭṭa° saṁvaṭṭaṭṭhāyi° vivaṭṭa° vivaṭṭaṭṭhāyi° A.II,142; often abbreviated to saṁvaṭṭa-vivaṭṭa° D.I,14; It.15; freq.in formula ekampijātiṁ,etc.Vin.III,4=D.III,51,111= It.99.On pubbanta° & aparanta°,past & future kappas see D.I,12 sq.paṭhama-kappe at the beginning of the world,once upon a time (cp.atīte) J.I,207.When kappa stands by itself,a Mahā-kappa is understood:DA.I,162.A whole,complete kappa is designated by kevala° Sn.pp.18=46~125; Sn.517; also dīgha° S.II,181; Sdhp.257.For similes as to the enormous length of a kappa see S.II,181 & DA.I,164=PvA.254.-- Acc.kappaṁ adv.:for a long time D.II,103=115= Ud.62,quot.at DA.I,103; Vin.II,198; It.17; Miln.108; mayi āyukappaṁ J.I,119,cp.Miln.141.Cp.saṅkappa.

--âtīta one who has gone beyond time,an Arahant Sn.373.--âvasesaṁ (Acc.) for the rest of the kappa,in kappaṁ vā k-âvasesaṁ vā D.II,117=A.IV,309=Ud.62; Miln.140:--āyuka (one) whose life extends over a kappa Mhvs.V,87; --uṭṭhāna arising at or belonging to the (end of a) kappa:--aggi the fire which destroys the Universe J.II,397; III,185; IV,498; V,336; VI,554; Vism.304; --kāla the time of the end of the world J.V,244; --uṭṭhāna (by itself) the end of the world J.I,4=Vism.415; --kata on which a kappa,i.e.smudge,has been made,ref.to the cīvara of a bhikkhu (see above) Vin.I,255; IV,227,286; DA.I,103; --(ñ)jaha (one) who has left time behind,free from saṁsāra,an Arahant Sn.1101 (but expld at Nd2 s.v.,see also DA.I,103,as free from dve kappā:diṭṭhi° taṇha°).--jāla the consumption of the kappa by fire,the end of a kappa Dpvs.I,61.--ṭṭha staying there for a kappa,i.e.in purgatory in āpāyiko nerayiko + atekiccho,said of Devadatta Vin.II,202,206; A.III,402 ~IV.160; It.11~85.--ṭṭhāyin lasting a whole cycle,of a vimāna Th.1,1190.--ṭṭhika enduring for an aeon:kibbisa (of Devadatta) Vin.II,198=204; (cp.Vin.Texts III,254) sālarukkha J.V,416; see also ṭhitakappiṁ Pug.13.--ṭṭhitika id.DhA.I,50 (vera); Miln.108 (kammaṁ).(“sabbe pi magga-samaṅgino puggalā ṭhita-kappino.”) --ṭṭhiya-=prec.A.V,75; J.I,172,213; V,33; Miln.109,214.°rukkha the tree that lasts for a kappa,ref.to the cittapāṭalī,the pied trumpet-tree in the abode of the Asuras J.I,202; --nibbatta originated at the beginning of the k.(appl.to the flames of purgatory) J.V,272; --parivaṭṭa the evolution of a k; the end of the world Dpvs.I,59; --pādapa=°rukkha Mhbv 2; --rukkha a wishing tree,magical tree,fulfilling all wishes; sometimes fig.J.VI,117,594; Vism.206; PvA.75,176,121; VvA.32 (where combd with cintāmaṇi); DhA.IV,208; --latā a creeper like the kapparukkha VvA.12; --vināsaka (scil.aggi):the fire consuming the world at the end of a k.Vism.414 sq.; (mahāmegho) DhA.III,362; --samaṇa an ascetic Acc.to precepts,an earnest ascetic J.VI,60 (cp.samaṇa-kappa); --halāhala “the k-uproar,” the uproar near the end of a kalpa J.I,47.(Page 187)

 

◎ Pali Proper Names Dictionary:

Kappa1.Kappa.-One of Bāvarī’s disciples.The questions he asked of the Buddha are recorded in the Kappamānavapucchā (q.v.).He became an arahant.Sn.vv.1007,1092-5; SnA.ii.597.

2.Kappa Thera.-An arahant.He was the son of a provincial governor in Magadha and was addicted to self-indulgence.The Buddha,seeing him in his net of wisdom,visited him and admonished him,speaking to him of the filthy nature of the body,illustrating his sermon with a wealth of simile and metaphor.Kappa was greatly impressed and joined the Order.He became an arahant,as his head was being shaved.In the time of the Buddha Siddhattha he was a rich householder,and offered at the Buddha’s shrine a kapparukkha containing objects of great value.Wherever he was born celestial trees grew outside his door.Seven kappas ago he was eight times king under the name of Sucela (Thag.567-76; ThagA.i.521ff).He is probably identical with Kapparukkhiya of the Apadāna.Ap.i.91.

3.Kappa.-In the Samyutta Nikāya (S.iii.169f) two suttas are connected with a monk called Kappa,who is probably identical with Kappa (2).In both suttas he asks the Buddha how it is possible to cultivate knowledge and thought so as to be free from thoughts of ”I” and ”mine” with regard to the body.The same questions,receiving the same answers,are elsewhere attributed to Rāhula.S.ii.253f.

4.Kappa.-A young brahmin (Kappakamāra) who was the Bodhisatta.He later became a sage and the disciple and friend of Kesava.For his story see the Kesava Jātaka (J.iii.142ff).The story is also referred to in the Bakabrahma Jātaka (J.iii.361; DhA.i.342f),and mentioned in the Samyutta Nikaya (S.i.144; SA.i.164; MA.i.555),where Bakabrahma is identified with Kappa’s teacher,Kesava.v.l.Kappaka.

5.Kappa.-See Nigrodha-Kappa.

 

◎ Pali Viet Dictionary:

KAPPA:[a] thuận tiện,tiện lợi,giống nhau --ka [a] người thợ cạo râu tóc,quan cận thần,tự vệ --ṭa [m] vải cũ rách,y phục rách rưới

 

◎ Pali Viet Dictionary:

KAPPA:[m] một thế hệ của vũ trụ,một tăng kỳ,tư tưởng --ṭṭhāyī --ṭṭhilika [a] lâu một tăng kỳ --rukkha [m] cây như ý (làm cho ước nguyện thành tựu) --vināsa [m] tiêu hoại của một a-tăng-kỳ --vināsaka [a] lửa tàn phá vũ trụ.

 

◎ Pali Viet Abhi- Terms:

kappa:kiếp,thời gian dài,dịp,cơ hội

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